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Als Scan 12


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. Recent studies suggest that nondemented ALS patients can show selective cognitive impairments, predominantly executive dysfunction, but little is known about the neural basis of these impairments. Oculomotor studies in ALS have described deficits in antisaccade execution, which requires the implementation of a task set that includes inhibition of automatic responses followed by generation of a voluntary action. It has been suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) contributes in this process. Thus, we investigated whether deterioration of executive functions in ALS patients, such as the ability to implement flexible behavior during the antisaccade task, is related to DLPFC dysfunction. While undergoing an fMRI scan, 12 ALS patients and 12 age-matched controls performed an antisaccade task with concurrent eye tracking. We hypothesized that DLPFC deficits would appear during the antisaccade preparation stage, when the task set is being established. ALS patients made more antisaccade direction errors and showed significant reductions in DLPFC activation. In contrast, regions, such as supplementary eye fields and frontal eye fields, showed increased activation that was anticorrelated with the number of errors. The ALS group also showed reduced saccadic latencies that correlated with increased activation across the oculomotor saccade system. These findings suggest that ALS results in deficits in the inhibition of automatic responses that are related to impaired DLPFC activation. However, they also suggest that ALS patients undergo functional changes that partially compensate the neurological impairment.




Als Scan 12



After connecting a scanner to your Mac, use Image Capture to scan images. If your scanner has an automatic document feeder, you can scan several pages at once. If you have a flatbed scanner, you can scan multiple images, straighten any that were placed crooked on the scan bed, and save each image to its own file.


Abstract:Although gravitropism forces trees to grow vertically, stems have shown to prefer specific orientations. Apart from wind deforming the tree shape, lateral light can result in prevailing inclination directions. In recent years a species dependent interaction between gravitropism and phototropism, resulting in trunks leaning down-slope, has been confirmed, but a terrestrial investigation of such factors is limited to small scale surveys. ALS offers the opportunity to investigate trees remotely. This study shall clarify whether ALS detected tree trunks can be used to identify prevailing trunk inclinations. In particular, the effect of topography, wind, soil properties and scan direction are investigated empirically using linear regression models. 299.000 significantly inclined stems were investigated. Species-specific prevailing trunk orientations could be observed. About 58% of the inclination and 19% of the orientation could be explained by the linear models, while the tree species, tree height, aspect and slope could be identified as significant factors. The models indicate that deciduous trees tend to lean down-slope, while conifers tend to lean leeward. This study has shown that ALS is suitable to investigate the trunk orientation on larger scales. It provides empirical evidence for the effect of phototropism and wind on the trunk orientation.Keywords: LiDAR; ALS; stem detection; tree inclination; phototropism; gravitropism; wind distortion


Abstract:The rapid developments in the field of digital aerial photogrammetry (DAP) in recent years have increased interest in the application of DAP data for extracting three-dimensional (3D) models of forest canopies. This technology, however, still requires further investigation to confirm its reliability in estimating forest attributes in complex forest conditions. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of tree height estimation based on a crown height model (CHM) generated from the difference between a DAP-derived digital surface model (DSM) and an airborne laser scanning (ALS)-derived digital terrain model (DTM). The tree heights determined based on the DAP-CHM were compared with ground-based measurements and heights obtained using ALS data only (ALS-CHM). Moreover, tree- and stand-related factors were examined to evaluate the potential influence on the obtained discrepancies between ALS- and DAP-derived heights. The obtained results indicate that the differences between the means of field-measured heights and DAP-derived heights were statistically significant. The root mean square error (RMSE) calculated in the comparison of field heights and DAP-derived heights was 1.68 m (7.34%). The results obtained for the CHM generated using only ALS data produced slightly lower errors, with RMSE = 1.25 m (5.46%) on average. Both ALS and DAP displayed the tendency to underestimate tree heights compared to those measured in the field; however, DAP produced a higher bias (1.26 m) than ALS (0.88 m). Nevertheless, DAP heights were highly correlated with the heights measured in the field (R2 = 0.95) and ALS-derived heights (R2 = 0.97). Tree species and height difference (the difference between the reference tree height and mean tree height in a sample plot) had the greatest influence on the differences between ALS- and DAP-derived heights. Our study confirms that a CHM computed based on the difference between a DAP-derived DSM and an ALS-derived DTM can be successfully used to measure the height of trees in the upper canopy layer.Keywords: DAP; ALS; CHM; tree height; forestry; photogrammetry; stereomatching


There's also little incentive to go looking for such controls because until you've seen it in action, it's hard to grasp just what LiDAR can do for you. The technology scans your environment, building up a 3D image of it, and that's going to change how well AR and VR works.


Move too quickly, and the resulting image is low on detail. Move too slowly, and the app can run out of memory before you complete the scan. So it's a compromise between detail and completeness, but what it gets you is a 360 degree image of your room.


You can instead take your phone and examine the scan anywhere else. Stand outside in field, for instance, and see your office on your iPhone screen. Move around the field, and the screen looks as if you're moving around the office.


You've already seen this with selected Apple devices. Through AR, and scanned images, your iPhone can show you what, say, a Mac Pro would look like on your desk. LiDAR scanners let you capture an object's image and do exactly that yourself.


Next time you move house, take a LiDAR scan of any new property you're considering buying. We're not at the stage yet where apps make it very easy to take a scan of a room, and then drop in separate scans of your furniture, but you can do it.


And ones, such as Canvas, include an option to send a scan online. It's not the same as being able to turn your phone around as you walk about a virtual room. But you can see a 360 degree scanned image on your Mac.


Safe Links is a feature in Defender for Office 365 that provides URL scanning and rewriting of inbound email messages in mail flow, and time-of-click verification of URLs and links in email messages and other locations. Safe Links scanning occurs in addition to the regular anti-spam and anti-malware in inbound email messages in Exchange Online Protection (EOP). Safe Links scanning can help protect your organization from malicious links that are used in phishing and other attacks.


Safe Links scans incoming email for known malicious hyperlinks. Scanned URLs are rewritten or wrapped using the Microsoft standard URL prefix: After the link is rewritten, it's analyzed for potentially malicious content.


As long as Safe Links protection is turned on, URLs are scanned prior to message delivery, regardless of whether the URLs are rewritten or not. In supported versions of Outlook (Outlook for Desktop version 16.0.12513 or later), unwrapped URLs are checked by a client-side API call to Safe Links at the time of click.


On: Safe Links checks a list of known, malicious links when users click links in email: Turn on or turn off Safe Links scanning in email messages. The recommended value is selected (on), and results in the following actions:


Apply Safe Links to email messages sent within the organization: Turn on or turn off Safe Links scanning on messages sent between internal senders and internal recipients within the same Exchange Online organization. The recommended value is selected (on).


Apply real-time URL scanning for suspicious links and links that point to files: Turns on real-time scanning of links, including links in email messages that point to downloadable content. The recommended value is selected (on).


If the URL points to a downloadable file, and the Apply real-time URL scanning for suspicious links and links that point to files setting is turned on in the policy that applies to the user, the downloadable file is checked.


Clicking the Go Back button on the warning page will return the user to their original context or URL location. However, clicking on the original link again will cause Safe Links to rescan the URL, so the warning page will reappear.


If the URL points to a downloadable file, and the Safe Links policy that applies to the user is configured to scan links to downloadable content (Apply real-time URL scanning for suspicious links and links that point to files), the downloadable file is checked.


Entries in the "Do not rewrite the following URLs" list are not scanned or wrapped by Safe Links during mail flow but might still be blocked at time of click. Use allow URL entries in the Tenant Allow/Block List to override the Safe Links URL verdict.


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